Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

The publication of any title by Castledown is based on strict guidelines to maintain the quality of the articles and the integrity of our publications. As publisher of journals and books, Castledown recognizes its duties in maintaining ethical and other responsibilities in publishing all academic works.

Duties of Authors:

Reporting standards
Authors of titles of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A manuscript containing reference to original research should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

Data access and retention
Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a manuscript for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data, if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and plagiarism
Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others or from their own previously published and unpublished work, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted. Plagiarism takes many forms, from passing off another’s work as the author’s own work, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another’s work (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one publication concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable. In general, an author should not submit for consideration in another manuscript a previously published manuscript. Publication of some kinds of titles (e.g., clinical guidelines, translations) in more than one publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. The authors and editors of all of the publications concerned must agree to the secondary publication, which must reflect the same data and interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication.

Acknowledgement of sources
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services.

Authorship of the manuscript
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Hazards and human or animal subjects
If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) has approved them. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest
All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest which should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest stage possible.

Fundamental errors in published works
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author is obligation to promptly notify the publishers and cooperate in the retraction or correction of the publication. If the publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly retract or correct the manuscript or provide evidence to the publishers of the correctness of the original manuscript.